Types of software testing encompass a range of variations, each designed to fulfill a distinct role in assuring the quality, functionality, and reliability of software applications. Software testing is a core element of the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) that helps to find errors or bugs. If the tests are done successfully, up to 99% error-free software can be extracted.
As you can understand from the title of this content there are many types of software testing. In our article, you will find the most used software testing types and all the test types you need to know in detail, along with their usage.
Here are the topics:
What is Software Testing
Principles of Software Testing
What are the Types of Software Testing
User Acceptance Testing (UAT)
What is Software Testing
Before we go into details about the different types of software testing, let’s recall what we know about software testing and its principles.
The main goal of software testing is to make sure that the software does what it’s supposed to do, works well, and gives the customer a good experience. During the software development process, different kinds of tests are done to find bugs, make sure features work as planned, and make sure the software works well in different situations.
Software testing helps to find problems early on in the development process. This keeps problems from piling up, which can be expensive and time-consuming to fix later. Different types of software testing make sure that software products are stable, robust, and of high quality by finding and fixing bugs.
During the testing process, test cases are made, expected results are set, tests are run, and the real results are compared to the expected ones. The results of these tests help coders and quality control teams decide if the software is ready to be released. Software testing is an important part of making software because it makes sure that the end result meets user needs, works as it should, and keeps a high level of quality and reliability.
Principles of Software Testing
Software testing is an important part of the development process, and it needs to be planned out carefully before it can be used. It’s important to avoid a “one-size-fits-all” method of testing if you want to make sure it works. Instead, a well-thought-out plan should be made that specifies the types of tests that are most important for the application’s needs and traits. This customized method makes sure that the testing process fits the unique needs of the application and guides its development in a smart way.
In software testing, it’s best to take a step-by-step method. This means starting with small-scale tests and then working up to bigger ones over time. With this method, problems can be found and fixed early on, before they get worse. By starting with small tests and building up to bigger ones, developers can test the application’s functionality and stability in a systematic way, which improves the application’s general quality.
Alignment with customer goals is one of the most important parts of testing software. The way testing processes are set up should meet the needs and expectations of end users. This focus on the customer makes sure that the application not only works as planned but also speaks to the right people. By trying the software thoroughly against what users want, developers can fine-tune it to give users a smooth and satisfying experience.
Software testing is a key part of the agile software development process because it checks for quality. It is a way to make sure that the end product meets quality standards that have already been set. The testing process is like a gatekeeper. It looks for deviations from the requirements, finds bugs, and makes it possible to fix things. This thorough review helps keep the software’s quality at a high level, which helps the application be reliable, stable, and successful as a whole.
In conclusion, software quality assurance is a complex process that requires careful planning, customization, incremental testing with different types of software testing, alignment with customer standards, and quality control. By following these rules, software development teams can test and improve their products in an organized way, making them more reliable, user-friendly, and high-quality.
The functional test type is for testing the functionality of the software according to the application’s requirements and specifications.
It is performed at various stages of the SDLC process to ensure that the application is meeting the requirements correctly and is working as expected.
There are 4 accepted functional tests.
Unit testing is small tests on code snippets. These tests are done by the developers during the development phase of the application. It can be done manually or in the form of automation. Unit testing allows to do validation, check boundary conditions, and check if the code is working as expected.
For unit testing, developers often use automation testing tools such as JUnit, NUnit, and XUnit.
Since the unit test type tests small parts, we may find more bugs, which shows how important this test is.
For example, an application’s login process will be tested. We can consider a test to test login with correct information as a unit test.
a)White Box Test
White box testing is the type of test where the tester sees the internal structure and code of the application and can access the codes.
The tester should have an average knowledge of code. The purpose of this test is to determine whether the code works correctly and to identify errors. It is a test during the development phase. White box testing techniques; decision scope and notification scope.
b) Gorilla Test
Gorilla testing is the technique in which the tester or developer thoroughly tests every aspect of the application’s parts. Gorilla testing is done to check the durability of the application.
For example; A tester can test the membership information of those who have registered for an application by applying end-to-end tests to the membership-related part of the application
Integration test evaluates the compatibility and accuracy of two or more application modules.This test checks whether modules work correctly individually and whether they perform similarly collectively.
Top-down or bottom-up approaches are used to introduce application modules. The top-down system adds high-priority modules first, followed by low-priority modules, and severe mistakes are identified rapidly. In the bottom-up system, little modules are added first, then large modules, to detect small mistakes faster. to be discovered.
We can see the product, user, and payment page you receive when you pay for an application product. However, they are distinct modules. The integration test shows these modules together.
In System Testing, an entire application is examined and all the functions of the application are tested.
System testing can be done with manual and automation tests. The performance and safety of the system are tested.
For example, background tests to verify that a user has been added to a system are system tests.
a) End-to-End Testing
End-to-End Test is a test that covers all the steps from the first stage of a particular function to the output.In the application, it ensures that different modules work together seamlessly and meet the customer’s requirements in the functions of the application.
For example, we want to issue invoices in an application. Starting from the login process, after making the invoice arrangements, the test for this function is the end-to-end test of all transactions until log out.
b) Black Box Test
Black box testing is the tests done without knowing the internal structure, coding and design of the application to be tested. The testers are interested in the inputs and outputs in the application.
While testing with this test technique, how the user will communicate with the application is taken into account and providing software security and quality is a priority.
Many applications are tested with the black box testing technique. Most of the errors are found with this technique.
c) Smoke Testing
It is the technique of testing certain critical points of the application under test at the highest level.
The software testing team determines if there is a problem on a build developed by the developers. Confirms that the application has become stable.
For example, in a system where student information is kept, a smoke test should be performed to test critical functions such as adding students to the application, updating their information, and deleting them.
d) Sanity Testing
Sanity testing is the tests performed to ensure that the newly added features or resolved bugs are working correctly. It is checked that these features do not cause a major error. These tests are performed on stable structures.
For example; These are the tests performed to verify that an application with a product purchasing system works together correctly when the process is added to the checkout page after adding it to the cart.
e) Happy path Testing
Happy Path Test aims to make a completely positive test in the flow of a function in the application.
He never looks at a negative situation or a faulty situation.
The important thing is to give the expected results and to reach positive inputs and outputs.
f) Monkey Testing
Monkey Test is a test that is carried out with a tester of the application, by entering random values without knowing and understanding how a monkey uses the application.
By performing the Monkey Test, it aims to try the application with random data to see if the system crashes or the error will not be encountered. Monkey Test is a random test, that is, test scenarios are not written and done manually, it does not require any functionality.
Regression testing is a key software development strategy for maintaining application integrity after code changes. Regression testing ensures that bug fixes and new additions have not introduced new bugs or interrupted existing functionality. By consistently testing the software’s behavior against established test cases, this testing procedure prevents unintentional code changes.
Regression testing ensures that software works as intended after modifications. This iterative process comprises rerunning test cases to see if the changes have affected program performance. As a safety net, it finds and fixes flaws early in the development cycle, preventing them from becoming more complex.
Regression testing has benefits beyond defect detection. This strategy greatly improves program reliability and stability by evaluating software behavior after each modification. It reduces unexpected issues caused by codebase dependencies. Comprehensive regression testing creates software that users can trust for consistent performance and functioning.
Regression testing is essential to software quality assurance, preventing regression errors and promoting software excellence. This method validates code changes to keep software running as intended and promote dependability, stability, and user happiness.
User Acceptance Testing (UAT)
User Acceptance testing is a technique where the customer tests their software as an end user in real time.
While performing the customer tests, it checks whether all its features work as desired/expected. This test technique application is considered the last stage of the test and after this stage, the test passes to the production section.The customer validates the application against different test cases. This is called the User Acceptance Test, namely UAT.
a) Alpha Testing
Alpha testing is an acceptance test performed by a test team in any organization to find faults in detail before releasing the software application to customers.
For example, on a website where product purchase is made, the product’s favorite features, adding to cart, deleting, updating user registration information, adding and deleting, as well as the payment process using the credit card information specified on the payment page, are tested and debugged by the UAT team.
b) Beta Testing
Beta Testing is a type of testing that involves testing the application by customers. It is testing with real data in the real environment before the application is presented to the end user as a product.
Beta Testing is done to ensure error-free and quality products in the software and the final product. Tests are made from the perspective of the end user. Beta Testing is complete when the client accepts the software.
Since these tests are made by the end user, the version we call the Beta version is offered to the end user. A certain number of users test the application. After these tests are completed, the end users convey their feedback to the company.
The company takes measures according to these notifications.
c) Operational Acceptance Testing (OAT)
The operational acceptance test is a test performed in the production environment or by the personnel working in the system. Operational acceptance testing aims for system administrators to test whether the system works correctly and properly for users in a real environment.
Tests for restoring and backing up data.
It tests a software that will recover in case of any natural disaster.
It aims to test the maintenance and management of the software.
The content of the non-functional test includes the non-functional features of the software such as compatibility, security, performance of the application. Likewise, the quality of the application and whether it meets the expected input and output are checked. There are four main headings under this test type.
Security tests are done by a dedicated test team and include a way to prevent the system from being hacked.
The purpose of these tests is to test how reliable the software application or site is against all threats. Thus, it is determined how the software is protected from payment, authentication, authorization and viruses and how resistant the software is to it.
With security testing, it is possible to test how the application will respond and how it is protected against attacks and malicious programs that may occur to the application or software.
These tests are done using manual and automation techniques.
a) Penetration Testing
Penetration testing is also known as Pen testing. It is a test performed by an authorized private tester by performing a cyber attack on the system.
Penetration testing is done by hackers who will intervene from the outside. It is also called ethical hacking. It is carried out with a cyber attack on the database side and reports are prepared and presented.
Normal people cannot perform this test. Written permission is required to perform this test.
b)Static Application Security Test (SAST)
SAST tests are performed at the earliest stage of the SDLC lifecycle, without executing any application or any code. For security and reliability, it is aimed to find security vulnerabilities without breaking the structure in the first stage of the software. Developers make this test. In this way, major security problems are prevented in the future.
Performance testing is a type of load testing to understand how stable and durable the software application is.
The durability of the software application against the load that will occur is called stability. The speed that the application creates against this load is called the response time. Performance tests are made using certain tools. The most used ones are JMeter, Loader.IO.
a) Load Testing
Load testing is the testing of the software application with the required number of users or less load, in order to measure the stability, capacity and correct usability of the system, and the response time of the system.
For example; 300 users can enter an application at the same time and the response time of the application to each login is 5 seconds. Thus, the load test should be performed with a maximum of 300 users or less, and it should be tested that 5 seconds is processed for each user.
With this test, it is tested whether the application can handle normal and subnormal loads.
b) Stress Testing
Stress testing is a test performed with more users than the number of users required for the system, to measure the stability, durability, and response time of the system against load.
For example; the application works with a maximum capacity of 2000 people and if we consider that there is a response time of 5 seconds for each user, we should test the application with more than 2000 users and verify that the response time we receive for each user is 5 seconds.
With this test, it is aimed to test by making trials above normal.
c) Scalability Testing
The scalability test is to test the stability of the software application, based on the response time of the system, using the normal number of users and more. It is similar to the stress and load test, but is tested by gradually increasing the load here.
For example, the application has a capacity of 200 people and a response time of 4 seconds for each user. By gradually increasing the number of users to 300,400,500, the performance of the system should be calculated by measuring the response time for each user. It is tested in this way.
d) Volume Testing (Flood Testing)
It can be said that tests such as volume test, load, stress test are applied to the database. It includes testing the stability, durability and response time of the software application by transferring large amounts of data to the database. It measures the data processing capacity of the database.
e) Endurance Testing (Soak Testing)
Endurance testing tests the stability of the software application, its durability, and the response time of the system, that it works correctly by applying loads over a long period of time.
For example, a phone company verifies how long the phone can be operated with these tests.
Usability testing is to test the software application’s usability, visuality and ease of use from the user’s perspective.
For example, it is necessary to verify that any software application usually has features such as red cancel buttons, green accept buttons, that all operations are concise and easy to use and understand, and that there are help buttons or a help button. Application with small notes for ease of use in certain areas.
With this test, it will be much easier to determine the quality interaction of the user with the application and the difficulties that he may experience while using it.
a) Exploratory testing
Exploratory Testing is testing performed by test teams for software application discovery.
With this test type, testing is done by trying the application without test scenarios and data, that is, by rediscovering it. Thus, the performance of the application and whether it is functional or not can be understood more easily, and the errors that could not be found in the tests with the data are detected.
b) Cross browser testing
Cross-browser testing is to test the performance, display and functionality of the software application in different browsers, mobile devices and different operating systems.
Users can use different browsers, mobile devices and different operating systems. That’s why we need to do cross-browser testing.
It allows us to use versions of all browsers, mobile devices and operating systems.
c) Accessibility Testing
Accessibility Test aims to make the software application easy to use by people with disabilities (blindness, deafness, mental disabilities, old age, and other disability groups).
Various operations such as font sizes or touchability settings for the visually impaired, visual operations for the deaf, color settings for the color blind are performed.
Compatibility testing tests how the system’s software application works on web servers, on different hardware, and in a different network environment.
With compatibility testing, the software is tested by test teams in different databases and its behavior is observed.
Other Types of Software Testing
All of the Software Test Types described are part of the software QA assurance process.
More than 100 test types are available. However, not all of them can be used in every project. Test types are determined and applied according to the needs of the software application. The software test types mentioned in the article are the most used test types in projects in 2023.
A wide variety of software testing types, ranging from functional and non-functional testing to performance, security, and usability testing, collectively form a comprehensive strategy for ensuring the both quality and functionality of software applications. These testing types are indispensable in the software development process, serving as vital tools for QA test implementation. By rigorously applying the right mix of testing methodologies, development teams can identify and rectify issues early, ultimately delivering software that meets user expectations, adheres to industry standards, and stands as a testament to quality assurance excellence.